My Nursing Education

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Civil Unrest – Resources

There is no continent in the world safe from civil unrest and violence. One can debate the causes of societal discontent and the belief that the only way to address the underlying issues is through civil unrest and violence. What is not debatable is that both exist and historically have had periods of exacerbation. Most increases in civil unrest are related to racial and socioeconomic inequality and discontent with government policy. Mass shooting and active shooters, however, are more closely related to religious and political extremism and mental illness. The world appears to be in a period of discontent that has resulted in both an increase in civil unrest and an increase in mass shootings.


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American Psychological Association. (2016). Managing your distress in the aftermath of shooting. Retrieved from

Armstrong Economics. (2017). Listing of US civil unrest incidents. Retrieved from https://www.

Australian Government. (2016). Living safe together. Retrieved from https://www. advice/Pages/what-is-radicalisation/what-is-radicalisation.aspx

Ballantyne, B. (2006). Medical management of the traumatic consequences of civil unrest incidents: Causation, clinical approaches, needs and advanced planning criteria. Toxicological Reviews, 25(3), 155-197. doi: 10.2165/00139709-200625030-00003

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Bjelopera, J. P., Bagalman, E., Caldwell, S.W., Finklea, K. M., & McCallion, G. (2013). Public mass shootings in the United States: Selected implications for federal public health and safety policy. Washington, DC: Congressional Research Service. Retrieved from

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Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2011). Public Health Preparedness Capabilities: National Standards for State and Local Planning.  Atlanta, GA: Centers for Disease Control.

City of Ferguson. (n.d.). Council members. Retrieved from 171/Council-Members

Crouch, E. (2013, November 26). Ferguson-Florissant superintendent says he was given no grounds for suspension. St. Louis Post-Dispatch. Retrieved from http://www.stltoday. com/news/local/education/ferguson-florissant-superintendent-says-he-was-given-no-grounds-for/article_d1217bd8-b3bb-5a65-852e-f8cd4e255050.html

Edmonson, C., Sumagaysay, D., Cueman, M., & Chappell, S. (2016). The nurse leader role in crisis management. Journal of Nurse Administration, 46(9), 417-419. doi: 10.1097/ NNA.0000000000000367.

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Farrell, B. (2011, August 10). ‘Riot is the language of the unheard.’ What MLK would have said about the London Riots. Waging nonviolence. Retrieved from https://

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Global Terrorism Database. (2017). Frequently asked questions. Retrieved from http://www.

Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation. (2017). State health facts. Poverty rate by race/ethnicity. Timeframe: 2015. Retrieved from %22,%22sort%22:%22asc%22%7D

Hick, J. L., Hanfling, D., Evans, B., Greenberg, S., Alson, R., McKinney, S., & Minson, M. (2016). Health and medical response to active shooter and bombing events. National Academy of Medicine. Retrieved from Health-and-Medical-Response-to-Active-Shooter-and-Bombing-Events.pdf

Houston Police Department. (2013). Surviving an active shooter: Run–Hide–Fight. Retrieved from Brochure_Main_Practice_2013.pdf

Howell, K. (2015, April 29). Baltimore riots sparked not by race but by class tensions between police, poor. The Washington Times. Retrieved from http://www. washingtontimes. com/news/2015/apr/29/baltimore-riots-sparked-not-by-race-but-by-class-t

Jacobs L. M., Wade D., McSwain, N. E., Butler, F. K., Fabbri W., Eastman, A.,…Burns, K. J. (2014). Hartford Consensus: A call to action for THREAT, a medical disaster preparedness concept. Journal of the American College of Surgeons, 218(3), 467–475. doi: 10.1016/j.jamcollsurg.2013.12.009

Kelen, G. D., Catlett, C. L., Kubit, J. G., & Hsieh, Y. H. (2012). Hospital-based shootings in the United States: 2000 to 2011. Annals of Emergency Medicine, 60(6), 790–798. doi:10.1016/j.annemergmed.2012.08.012.

Kotora, J. G., Clancy, T., Manzon, L., Malik, V., Louden, R. J., & Merlin, M. A. (2014). Active shooter in the emergency department: A scenario-based training approach for healthcare workers. American Journal of Disaster Medicine, 9(1), 39–51. doi:10.5055/ajdm.2014.0140.

Lloyd, T., & Singer, D. (2014). McCoy resigns as Ferguson-Florissant Superintendent. St. Louis Public Radio. Retrieved from

Norwood, K. J. (2016). Ferguson Faultlines: the race quake that rocked a nation.  American Bar Association.

Pinker, S. (2011). The better angels of our nature: Why violence has declined. New York, NY: Viking.

RAND Corporation. (n.d.). Community Resilience. Retrieved from community-resilience.html

Rocchio, M., Kealy, M., & Posey, J. (2015). Where we stand. The strategic assessment of the St.Louis region (7th ed.). St. Louis, MO: East-West Gateway Council of Governments. Retrieved from

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St. Louis, Post-Dispatch. (n.d.). Voters’ guide. Ferguson-Florissant school board.

The Joint Commission. (2014). Quick safety issue four: Preparing for active shooter situations. Oakbrook Terrace, IL. Retrieved from

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U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (2014). Incorporating active shooter incident planning into health care facility emergency operations plans. Retrieved from

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U.S. Department of Homeland Security. (2017). Active Shooter Pocket Card. Retrieved from

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United States Department of Labor. (n.d.). Occupational Safety and Health Administration: Evacuation plans and procedures eTool. Retrieved from

United States Department of Labor Bureau of Labor Statistics. (2017). Table A-2. Employment status of the civilian population by race, sex, and age. Retrieved from

Wikipedia Contributors. (2017). List of incidents of civil unrest in the United States. Retrieved from in_the_ United_States

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